- Why U of T?
A Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree from the University of Toronto's Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy opens the door to diverse and rewarding health-focused careers. Consistently ranked as the top faculty of pharmacy in Canada and one of the top five in the world, we offer a vibrant community of world-leading professionals and researchers and endless opportunities for growth.
- Why choose pharmacy?
As trusted healthcare professionals, pharmacists occupy a special place in the community and in the broader healthcare system. Today, pharmacists apply their skills in a variety of work environments including community practice, hospital, education and the pharmaceutical industry. A degree in pharmacy gives you the opportunity to build a rewarding and diverse career based on your individual interests.
- What is the difference between a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree and a BSc in Pharmacy?
Both degree programs are designed for individuals wishing to pursue careers as licensed pharmacists. The Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program has a more advanced curriculum and includes a significantly greater experiential learning component than BScPhm degree programs. The University of Toronto was among the first Pharmacy schools to convert to a PharmD program. All Canadian schools of Pharmacy are now offering PharmD programs although the BScphm degree continues to be a recognized entry-to-practice degree program.
Application Process & Program Costs
- How do I apply?
Applicants must apply using the online Application which is accessible directly from our website. Please note that this application is not accessible through the Ontario Universities Applications Centre’s (OUAC) system. The online application is available starting in mid-September of each year and closes in January.
- When can I apply?
Admission to the PharmD program requires the completion of several first and second year university-level courses and so most applicants will not become eligible to apply until their second year of university study. Students who have already completed all required courses, or who expect to complete all required courses by the end of the second term in the 2019-20 academic year (i.e. by the end of April 2020), would be eligible to apply for admission for September 2020. The online application is available starting in mid-September of each year and closes in January.
- How many new students are admitted each year?
In recent years the number of applications has ranged from approximately 500 to 700 applications per year. A total of approximately 240 students are admitted to the PharmD program each year. Each year, more candidates apply to the program than can be admitted. As a result, not all qualified candidates will be offered admission to the PharmD program.
- I have completed a university degree. Does this make it easier to gain admission to the PharmD program?
No. All applicants who meet admission requirements will be placed in the same applicant pool. Those who have completed one or more degrees will have no advantages over someone who has completed the minimum requirements for admission.
- Is preference given to University of Toronto students?
No. No preference is given to University of Toronto students, or students from any other university.
- Will I get special consideration as a “mature” student?
No. No special consideration is given for “mature” students.
- I am not an Ontario resident. Can I still apply to the PharmD program?
Yes. All qualified applicants – from Ontario, from other provinces, from outside Canada – may apply for admission to the PharmD program. However, the class of approximately 240 will be comprised mainly of domestic students. (Canadian citizens or Permanent Residents).
All candidates should be aware that they may need to travel to Canada or the United States to write the PCAT, as this examination may not be offered where they reside. As well, all applicants must be prepared to travel to Toronto to participate in the admission interview process. Qualified candidates may be selected to attend an admission interview on any one of three dates given in the interview section detailed in our Admissions Overview page. Applicants whose first language is not English may also be required to provide proof of English facility.
- Do I need to submit letters of reference or other non-academic materials?
Reference letters and other materials (e.g. award letters, personal profiles etc.) are not required and not considered in our selection process. Please do not send these items in support of your application.
- If I am admitted to the PharmD program, what costs should I expect?
Tuition for the 2019-2020 academic year is $18,060.00 CDN for domestic students. The cost for international students is roughly double the cost for domestic students. In addition, there is a non-academic incidental/ancillary fee that is payable once per session. This fee for the 2019-20 session is approximately $1,416.36 CDN.
There are additional fees associated with course or program requirements that students will be required to pay. These fees include:
- Immunization: there may be costs associated with obtaining required immunizations (per your health care provider).
- CPR/First Aid certification: this fee varies depending on the organization; however, you can expect to pay approximately $100 plus applicable taxes. Students must be certified in CPR/First Aid throughout their registration in the PharmD program which means that there will be an additional fee for re-certification. You will submit your Immunization and CPR/First Aid certification to the Verified by Synergy Gateway platform. You can expect to pay a document verification fee of approximately $47.50 per year while registered in the PharmD program
- Registration as a pharmacy student with the Ontario College of Pharmacists: this fee is currently $469 plus applicable taxes.
- Personal Professional Liability Insurance: this fee varies depending on the supplier; however, you can expect to pay up to $120.
- Fobs keys: you will need a key to access designated student areas in the Leslie L. Dan Pharmacy Building. This fee is $20 (refundable).
- In Year 2 students must purchase equipment for the lab component of the course PHM241H1 Topics in Pharmaceutical Quality and Clinical Laboratory Medicine. In 2019-20, these fees are approximately $10
- Students must be fitted for masks prior to beginning their Early Practice Experience 2 (EPE-2) rotation during the summer at the end of Year 2. This process takes place in the winter term of the second year. In 2019-20, the fee is approximately $25.
- Some experiential sites require students to obtain a Police Record Check. The fee for this varies depending on the city in which the Police Record Check is conducted and can cost up to $65.
- Course materials: in Year 1, students must pay for course notes for PHM140H1 Molecular Pharmacology. In 2019-20 this fee is $17.00. In Year 2 students must pay for the lab manual for PHM241H1. In 2019-20 this fee is $7. Fees for course materials are added to the fees invoice you will be able to access on ACORN July each year.
- How long does it take to meet all academic requirements for admission?
With careful timetable planning it is possible to complete all requirements within two years of university level study. You may apply during your second year of study if you have either already competed all required subjects, or if you are registered for required subjects to be completed by April of your second year. For details visit the Academic Requirements section of our website.
- What average must I have to gain admission?
There is no average which can guarantee admission as decisions are based on overall performance. The minimum published requirement for initial consideration is 70% (equivalent to a ‘B-’ at the University of Toronto). In recent years, the median average of those offered admission has been in the A- (80-83%) range, with a very small number of students in the B- range.
- How do you determine the cumulative university average?
The cumulative university average includes all university courses taken by applicants, including graduate and undergraduate courses, any repeats or failures as well as any courses listed as ‘extra’ on transcripts. The cumulative university average will also include summer courses – except for summer courses taken in the same year that the applicant is applying.
The Faculty will convert letter grades to percentage values for the purpose of calculating a cumulative average.
In cases where a student has opted for a CR/NCR, where a letter or percentage grade would normally be reported, the actual percentage or letter grade that is reported in the student record system will be calculated into the cumulative average. This is effective for courses beginning September 2015 or later.
The cumulative university average does not include any secondary school grades, nor does it include grades obtained in IB, AP, GCE or CEGEP studies, although credits obtained in these systems of study may be used for purposes of satisfying some of the individual subject requirements.
For all eligible applicants the cumulative average will normally also include the grades for internationally obtained university credits (from recognized institutions), taking into account the differences in various worldwide grading practices. The general grading system in the country in which the qualifications were obtained as well as the scale used at the post-secondary institution(s) attended are considered. However, details regarding individual assessments are not provided.
- Is there a minimum course load that I must take to be eligible for admission consideration?
While there is no published minimum course load, it is important that you have experience with successfully managing a full course load (e.g. 5.0 full-credit equivalents over one academic year) as this will prepare you for the challenging course load in our PharmD program which includes up to 6.5 full-credit equivalents per year.
- What is a ‘full-credit equivalent’ and how can I determine my course load?
Different universities use different course weighting systems. When we refer to a ‘full-credit equivalent’ we refer to a full year course that typically runs in the regular academic session from September to April, or two half-year courses that typically fun from September to December plus January to April. Full year courses typically include at least two lecture hours per week over a period of 24-26 weeks (i.e. a minimum of 48-52 lecture hours in total) to qualify as a full-credit course.
At universities employing a semester system, two courses, each with a minimum of two lecture hours per week, over 12-13 weeks each will qualify as one full-credit equivalent. While some courses may include three hours or more of lectures per week over two terms (i.e. 78 or more lecture hours), plus labs and tutorials, these courses are still classified as 1.0 full-credit equivalents. Extra credit is not given for lab or tutorial hours and no single course can count for more than 1.0 full-credit equivalent.
If labs that complement courses are reported separately on your transcript, they are not included in the calculation of course load, but are included in the calculation of the cumulative average. For example, at the University of Waterloo a student taking 10 half-credit (0.5) courses in the regular academic year, in addition to any required labs, would have a course load of 5.0 full-credit equivalents.
All courses are considered as full-credit (1.0) equivalents or half-credit (0.5) equivalents. For example, at some universities employing a 6.0 and 3.0 weighting system, there may also be courses at a weight of 4.0. For the purpose of determining course load, a 4.0 credit course would be a half credit (0.5) equivalent.
The following table illustrates some common weight conversions:
Credit System Example Full-Credit (1.0) Equivalent at U of T Half-Credit (0.5) Equivalent at U of T 9.0, 6.0, 3.0 4.0 York University 9.0, 6.0 3.0, 4.0 3.0 and 1.5 University of Victoria 3.0 1.5 2.0 and 1.0 Ryerson 2.0 1.0 3, 4, and 5 United States universities on semester system N/A 3, 4, and 5
- How can I find out if the courses offered at my university meet the subject requirements for admission?
We provide a table with examples of acceptable course codes at all Ontario universities, as well as a few non-Ontario institutions.
If you have studied at an institution outside of Ontario, not listed on the table, please view the ‘Information for Candidates Who Have Studied Outside Ontario (Non-Ontario and International)’ section for general information. Also, please note that due to time and resource limitations, the Faculty cannot conduct formal reviews of academic qualifications until after an official application has been submitted. Applicants are required to carefully compare the courses completed with those on our list of required subjects to determine, to the best of their ability, whether or not the courses align.
To help you organize your information, download the PharmD Application Handbook and use the worksheet provided. If you require guidance, after attempting a course-by-course comparison on your own, you may contact the PharmD Admissions Office directly with specific questions by sending an e-mail message to email@example.com. Please use subject line ‘Course equivalence inquiry’.
- How are the required subjects used in the selection process?
We do not calculate a separate average on the required subjects alone – they are included in your cumulative average calculation. The minimum requirement for individual required subjects is a passing grade.
- How will ‘Credit/No Credit’ designations affect my application?
If you choose to have your final course result reported as a Pass/Fail or CR/NCR, where a letter or percentage grade is normally reported, the following will apply:
For all courses beginning September 2015 and later:
If you are a University of Toronto student and you elect to have final course result(s) reported as a CR/NCR Credit/No Credit), where a letter or percentage grade is normally reported, the Faculty will assign the percentage grade(s) available in the student record system. These grades will be included in the calculation of the cumulative average. This applies to all courses.
Students from other universities who elect to have their final course result(s) reported as a CR/NCR (or Pass/Fail), where a letter or percentage grade is normally reported, will be required to request that their home university release the grade(s) to our office. These grades will be included in the calculation of the cumulative average. This applies to all courses.
For all courses completed prior to September 2015:
For students from all universities who elected to have a final course result(s) reported as CR/NCR (Credit/No Credit) where a letter or percentage grade would normally have been reported, no grades will be formally calculated into the average. However, the CR will be interpreted as the lowest passing grade and NCR will be counted as a fail.
- Will summer courses be considered for admission purposes?
Summer courses are considered to be of the same difficulty and rigour as courses taken during the fall/winter. Any summer courses must be reported to us by the final transcript deadline to qualify to meet subject requirements and be included as part of the cumulative university average calculation. Due to the timing of the release of summer course grades, only those taken at least one year in advance of the application year can be considered (e.g. summer courses completed by August 2019 will qualify for 2020 admission consideration).
- May I complete academic subject requirements through online studies?
Yes, if scheduling all needed campus-based courses becomes difficult due to timetabling issues, we encourage you to consider completing some of the academic subject requirements through online studies at a recognized university (or at the high school level for Physics). Please note:
- Courses must be degree credit courses offered at a recognized university –for example, U of Waterloo, Queen’s University and Athabasca U are well-known Canadian online course providers. (The University of Toronto, School of Continuing Studies is an exception; although known for offering non-degree, non-credit courses, we do accept Human Physiology SCS2159 and Biochemistry SCS2472 for purposes of meeting these two respective subject requirements. Although we do allow these two SCS courses we do not include the grades for the SCS credits in the calculation of the overall average).
- MOOCs (Massive Online Open Courses) such as those offered through FutureLean, EdEx and Coursera are not recognized for purposes of meeting any of the academic subject requirements.
- The ‘Challenge for Credit’ option offered by some online course providers (e.g. Athabasca University), is not acceptable. You must complete all course components.
- For the courses which require labs (Introductory Chemistry and Organic Chemistry) we require a wet lab rather than virtual labs.
- There is no known online equivalent to the Physical Chemistry subject requirement.
- For purposes of meeting the Grade 12 Physics subject requirement you may register for SPH4U through the Independent Learning Centre (see information at www.ilc.org) and you may complete the course at the same time you are taking university courses. You must arrange to complete all components of the course and write the exam far enough in advance to allow for the final grade to be received by our office no later than the final transcript deadline. This requires that you write the final exam no later than early May. There is no extension of the deadline for high school credits.
- Can I apply directly to an upper year if I have completed one or more degree programs?
No. All applicants are considered for admission into Year 1 including those who have already completed one or more degree programs.
- Will any of my previously completed university credits be considered as transfer credits?
Due to the specialized nature of the PharmD program, there are few equivalent courses offered in other programs. For details of transfer credit assessment and eligibility please click here. All applicants should note, however, that it will normally take four years of study to complete our PharmD program regardless of whether any transfer credits are awarded.
- Does it matter how long ago I completed the academic requirements?
Courses taken more than 10 years ago will be flagged for individual consideration and may not be acceptable in meeting admission requirements. Prospective applicants who have completed their university studies more than ten years ago, or who completed the university-level required courses more than 10 years ago, are advised that upgrading in some of the required subjects may be required to qualify for admission.
Previous Education in Pharmacy
- Can I transfer from another Pharmacy program?
Candidates from other Pharmacy programs may apply, although there are no direct ‘transfers’ to our PharmD program due to differences among the sequencing of courses and differences in course material or assessment methods. Candidates from other Pharmacy programs do not have any advantage in the selection process.
If offered admission, candidates who have successfully completed one or more years of a CCAPP or ACPE-accredited Pharmacy program may be considered for course exemption on a case-by-case basis. The maximum number of allowable course exemptions for any candidate is 9.0 full-credit equivalents.
Please note that this assessment cannot be done prior to the time admission is granted. Candidates from non-CCAPP or non-ACPE accredited Pharmacy programs would be considered only for the same course exemptions as those applying from general science programs.
Candidates with previous registration in a Pharmacy program must have been in good standing during the most recent session/year of the Pharmacy program to be eligible for admission consideration.
There are no exemptions from the experiential components of our program. For details visit the Course Exemptions section of our website.
- I have a Pharmacy degree from outside of Canada. Do I need to take the PharmD program?
Candidates who have graduated from a non-Canadian Pharmacy program who wish to become licensed in Canada must follow the procedures as set out by the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada (PEBC). If your credentials are recognized, you will be allowed to write the relevant Board Exams (Evaluating and/or Qualifying Exam). For more information on this process, please visit the PEBC website at www.pebc.ca.
The Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy does not evaluate international Pharmacy degrees.
If you have attempted, but have not been successful in, the Evaluating Exam, you may consider applying as a Special (Non-Degree) Student for individual courses. The Faculty does not offer any courses geared specifically for candidates who have not been successful in the Evaluating Exam, and therefore candidates should work with the PEBC to identify the proper courses or alternative methods of upgrading.
If your credentials are recognized and you have been successful on the PEBC Evaluating Exam, you may be interested in, and eligible for admission to, our International Pharmacy Graduate (IPG) Program. The IPG Program is a unique bridging program designed to assist pharmacists trained in countries outside Canada to meet Canadian entry-to-practice standards.
Candidates who have completed a non-recognized Pharmacy degree may apply for admission to the PharmD program if all published admission requirements are met.
- I hold a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy Degree (BScPhm). Should I apply for the PharmD program?
Candidates who have completed a recognized Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy (BScPhm) degree, or equivalent, and who have successfully passed the PEBC Evaluating Exam (where relevant), may be interested in our PharmD for Pharmacists program.
The PharmD for Pharmacists program at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy is a bridging program designed to bridge the gap between a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy education (from Canada or elsewhere) and an entry-to-practice PharmD program.
Practicing pharmacists, graduates of the Faculty’s Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program, graduates of other Canadian BScPhm programs, as well as internationally trained pharmacists are eligible to apply for admission to the PharmD for Pharmacists program.
- I have completed a Pharmacy Technician or Pharmacy Assistant Program. Can I transfer to the PharmD program?
Pharmacy Technician and Pharmacy Assistant programs do not meet the academic requirements for admission or transfer credit purposes to our PharmD program. Graduates of these programs must supplement their studies by completing the required courses at the university level.
Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT)
- I have written the PCAT previously – do I need to re-write it?
If you have written the PCAT between January 2016 and January 2020, test results for these examinations will be valid for the 2020 admission cycle. If you are not satisfied with your scores on previous tests, however, you may choose to re-write the PCAT. Although the minimum required PCAT scores for each year are decided based on the performance of the applicant pool in each given year (and therefore are not available for publishing ahead of time), as a general guideline you should anticipate that required scores would be no lower than those required in the most recent past admission cycle.
Please ensure that the University of Toronto (code 278) is selected as a score recipient each time you register for the PCAT and ensure that the Candidate Identification Number (CID) is the same for all tests you write.
- How should I prepare for the PCAT?
Your university background is your best preparation, though candidates may choose to review the PCAT study guide, test overview, and testing tutorial, and write a practice test on the PCAT website. Although the Faculty does not endorse specific products or services, there are also preparatory study guides and courses available through various test preparation agencies aimed at preparing applicants to write the PCAT.
To perform well on the PCAT, candidates must be able to read, think and write effectively. As these abilities are also critical to the many pharmacy roles available today, it is strongly recommended that candidates incorporate courses in their pre-pharmacy program of study that help build or further develop the ability to read, think, and write effectively.
Courses such as Philosophy, History and Political Science are good examples of courses that may help you develop these required skills and will also serve towards meeting the Humanities/Social Science subject requirement.
- When should I write the PCAT?
The latest you may write the PCAT, for admission in September is January of the same year. First time test-takers are encouraged to write the PCAT early, i.e. before January of the year for which application is made. This will allow you time to receive scores and register to re-write the PCAT if the results are not satisfactory. There is no penalty for re-taking the PCAT should you choose to write more than once; however, you must pay the relevant PCAT registration fee for each test attempt.
- How many times can I write the PCAT?
Applicants may write the PCAT more than once. Test results for each test should be reported to the University of Toronto. The testing agency will report up to five of your most recent test results. Where multiple test results are reported the faculty will use the one test where all minimums are met that has the highest composite score (i.e. if one or more sections are below the required threshold that test does not meet the requirements regardless of the composite score). The scores from different test administrations cannot be combined.
- What score will I need on the PCAT and will I be provided with a score report?
Individuals writing the PCAT will be provided with percentile and scaled scores for the multiple-choice sections of the PCAT, as well as a separate score for the writing subtest. Minimum score requirements for each section of the PCAT will be established. We are unable to tell you specifically what the minimum requirements for the current year will be as this cannot be determined until after all results are received and assessed within the applicant pool. Please click here to view minimum score requirements in previous years.
- I wrote the PCAT before 2016 when changes to the test were implemented. How will my score be calculated?
PCAT test administrations occurring July 2016 onward have a new test blueprint as well as score reporting changes. The titles in the table above reflect both the former sub-test titles as well as the new sub-test titles. There are now only 4 multiple-choice sections rather than five – the Verbal Ability section has been removed.
If you wrote PCAT prior to July 2016 the Verbal Ability section, although included in your original score reports, will not be among the sections we will use for assessing minimum requirements (this is why it has been removed from the table above). You should also note that all percentile scores will be adjusted to reflect the new 2015 ‘normative’ values as calculated by the testing agency. The Composite percentile score is also based on a recalculated scaled score that excludes the Verbal Ability subtest. Thus, all candidates’ older scaled scores and percentile scores are comparable to those taking the test July 2016 onward. You can view details of these changes at http://www.pcatweb.info/PCAT-Updates.php
- Are there any alternatives to the published interview sessions?
No. Due to the nature of the multiple-mini interview format, and the methods of assessment, alternate arrangements are not possible. As there is a short turnaround time from the time the interview confirmations are posted and the time the first interviews take place, candidates who will need to travel long distances are advised to choose the May interview session as their first preference to allow sufficient time to make travel arrangements. While interview dates cannot be guaranteed, candidates from outside the province of Ontario will be given priority for the May interview date if selected as the first preference on the application.
- How and when will I know if I am among the applicants chosen for an interview?
Notifications will be posted on the Applicant website early in March. Candidates are advised to hold all of the published dates in the Interview section until the notifications have been posted. Assigned interview times and dates cannot be changed once they have been posted.
- What kind of questions will be asked during the interview session?
The admission interview format used by the Faculty focuses on non-academic attributes. There are different possible types of interview questions including discussion, debate and collaboration. The following is an example of a discussion type question that may be posed during an interview session:
Dr. Jackson frequently recommends homeopathic medicines to her patients. There is no widely accepted theory to suggest how homeopathic medicines work; indeed Dr. Jackson does not believe these medicines do work. She recommends homeopathic medicine to people with mild and nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, headaches and muscle aches, because she believes that it will do no harm but will give them reassurance. Consider the ethical problems that Dr. Jackson’s behavior might pose. Discuss these issues with the interviewer.
- What is the format of the admission interviews?
Admissions interviews at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy follow the Multiple-Mini Interview (MMI) format. In this type of interview, candidates participate in approximately 8 to 10 short interviews that are 6-7 minutes in length. Outside each interview station, candidates will be given 2 minutes to read a question or scenario, and will then enter the interview station to discuss or enact their response to that question or situation. Candidates are guided by volunteers from one interview station to the next. At each station there will be a different assessor (interviewer) who may be a pharmacist, faculty member, student, or member of another group.
- How can I prepare for the interview?
The purpose of the admission interview is to assess skills and attitudes that are important for Pharmacy students as they prepare to become healthcare professionals. Applicants are evaluated based on their thought process when faced with a given situation, and their ability to effectively communicate within the time allotted. While there is no specific method of preparation for multiple mini interviews, Career Centre offices at some universities offer ‘mock’ MMIs which some students may find helpful.
- What does the admission interview process assess and how can I find out how I did?
The admission interview process is designed to measure many different non-academic attributes which may include, but will not necessarily be limited to; conscientiousness, accountability, problem-solving, emotional intelligence, ethical reasoning, communication skills, leadership, and resilience. Students who possess desired skills and qualities, along with a strong academic background, will be better prepared to succeed within the challenging PharmD program and as a front-line healthcare practitioner.
Information recorded on scoring forms from each mini-interview is compiled and used by the during the selection process. No feedback or information of any kind is provided to individual candidates regarding their interview rating or performances.
- When and how will I be notified of the decision on my application?
All candidates who submit the online application by the deadline will have access to the Applicant website that will contain important information, notices, and communications about admission to the program. Minimum PCAT score requirements for the current year and Interview notices will be posted on the Applicant site early in March. Candidates who have been selected to participate in the interview stage will be provided detailed information related to the procedures for the interview day via this site. Final admission decisions will be posted on the Applicant website in mid-June each year after the final transcripts deadline.
- What criteria are used to determine who is admitted to the program?
Applicants will be assessed on their academic performance (i.e. successful completion of required subjects and cumulative university average), performance on the Pharmacy College Admission Test, and (for those who meet all initial academic and PCAT standards) performance during the interview process.
Applicants must meet minimum standards in all sections of the Pharmacy College Admission Test, have completed (or be in the process of completing) all required subjects, and must have (or be able to attain prior to the final deadline) a competitive cumulative university average. The published minimum average is 70% (equivalent to a ‘B-’ at the University of Toronto); however, depending on the applicant pool the minimum for interview eligibility may be higher.
The published criteria does not preclude consideration of other possible factors related to academic performance and/or student conduct. Those who do not meet minimum standards in one or more of the criteria will not be considered in final selections.
- What average must I have at the university level to gain admission?
There is no average which can guarantee admission. The minimum published requirement for initial consideration, is 70% (equivalent to a B-at the University of Toronto); however, the average required for interview selections, and/or the average required for consideration in final selections may be higher. Applicants are assessed within the applicant pool in the year in which they are applying. In recent years, the median average of those offered admission has been in the A- range (80-83%).
- How will repeated or failed courses, affect my application?
The grades from all attempts at individual courses, including failures and repeats, are included in the calculation of the cumulative university average.